Sergey Gavrilets and Takehiko I. Hayashi "Speciation and sexual conflict"
We review mathematical models that explicitly
consider the dynamics of evolutionary change driven by sexual conflict
over mating rate when males are selected for increasing mating success
whereas females are selected to restrict mating rate.
These models focus on a pair of traits each of which is controlled
by a separate set of genes expressed in one sex only.
The traits control the probability of mating and/or fertilization.
Overall, there are at least six different
dynamic regimes observed in models of sexual conflict:
(1) continuous coevolutionary chase between the sexes (which can result
in allopatric speciation as a byproduct),
(2) evolution towards an equilibrium,
(3) cyclic evolution,
(4) evolution towards a line of equilibria with subsequent random drift
along this line,
(5) Buridan's Ass regime involving extensive diversification in female alleles
without comparable diversification in male alleles, and
(6) extensive diversification in both male and female alleles
(which can result in sympatric speciation).
Mathematical models also show that different dynamic regimes can be
observed with the same set of parameter values but under different initial
conditions. It is also possible that the same population switches from
one regime to another as a result of stochastic perturbations due to,
say, random genetic drift. Moreover, different sets of loci controlling
mating and fertilization in the same species can follow different dynamic
regimes. We attempt to make some generalizations and identify important directions
theoretical and empirical work.